"Tuning time and energy resolution in time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with nonlinear crystals"

Alexandre Gauthier: Jonathan A. Sobota, Nicolas Gauthier, Ke-Jun Xu, Heike Pfau, Costel R. Rotundu, Zhi-Xun Shen, and Patrick S. Kirchmann; Journal of Applied Physics, 09/01/20.

Additional Authors: Jonathan A. Sobota, Nicolas Gauthier, Ke-Jun Xu, Heike Pfau, Costel R. Rotundu, Zhi-Xun Shen, and Patrick S. Kirchmann

Abstract:

Time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy is a powerful probe of electronic band structures out of equilibrium. Tuning time and energy resolution to suit a particular scientific question has become an increasingly important experimental consideration. Many instruments use cascaded frequency doubling in nonlinear crystals to generate the required ultraviolet probe pulses. We demonstrate how calculations clarify the relationship between laser bandwidth and nonlinear crystal thickness contributing to experimental resolutions and place intrinsic limits on the achievable time-bandwidth product. Experimentally, we tune time and energy resolution by varying the thickness of nonlinear β-BaB2O4 crystals for frequency upconversion, providing a flexible experiment design. We achieve time resolutions of 58–103 fs and corresponding energy resolutions of 55–27 meV. We propose a method to select crystal thickness based on desired experimental resolutions.