"Time-Reversal-Invariant Topological Superconductors and Superfluids in Two and Three Dimensions"

Xiao-Liang Qi: Taylor L. Hughes S. Raghu, and Shou-Cheng Zhang; Phys. Rev. Lett. , 05/04/09.

Additional Authors: Taylor L. Hughes S. Raghu, and Shou-Cheng Zhang

Abstract:

We construct time-reversal invariant topological superconductors and superfluids in two and three dimensions. These states have a full pairing gap in the bulk, gapless counterpropagating Majorana states at the boundary, and a pair of Majorana zero modes associated with each vortex. The superfluid 3He B phase provides a physical realization of the topological superfluidity, with experimentally measurable surface states protected by the time-reversal symmetry. We show that the time-reversal symmetry naturally emerges as a supersymmetry, which changes the parity of the fermion number associated with each time-reversal invariant vortex and connects each vortex with its superpartner.