"Fingerprint Oxygen Redox Reactions in Batteries through High-Efficiency Mapping of Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering"

Jinpeng Wu: Qinghao Li, Shawn Sallis, Zengqing Zhuo, William E. Gent, William C. Chueh, Shishen Yan, Yi-de Chuang and Wanli Yang; Condensed Matter, 01/05/19.

Additional Authors: Qinghao Li, Shawn Sallis, Zengqing Zhuo, William E. Gent, William C. Chueh, Shishen Yan, Yi-de Chuang and Wanli Yang

Abstract:

Realizing reversible reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions of lattice oxygen in batteries is a promising way to improve the energy and power density. However, conventional oxygen absorption spectroscopy fails to distinguish the critical oxygen chemistry in oxide-based battery electrodes. Therefore, high-efficiency full-range mapping of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (mRIXS) has been developed as a reliable probe of oxygen redox reactions. Here, based on mRIXS results collected from a series of Li1.17Ni0.21Co0.08Mn0.54O2 electrodes at different electrochemical states and its comparison with peroxides, we provide a comprehensive analysis of five components observed in the mRIXS results. While all the five components evolve upon electrochemical cycling, only two of them correspond to the critical states associated with oxygen redox reactions. One is a specific feature at 531.0 eV excitation and 523.7 eV emission energy, the other is a low-energy loss feature. We show that both features evolve with electrochemical cycling of Li1.17Ni0.21Co0.08Mn0.54O2 electrodes, and could be used for characterizing oxidized oxygen states in the lattice of battery electrodes. This work provides an important benchmark for a complete assignment of all mRIXS features collected from battery materials, which sets a general foundation for future studies in characterization, analysis, and theoretical calculation for probing and understanding oxygen redox reactions.