"Reactivation of dead sulfide species in lithium polysulfide flow battery for grid scale energy storage"

Yang Jin: Guangmin Zhou , Feifei Shi , Denys Zhuo , Jie Zhao , Kai Liu , Yayuan Liu , Chenxi Zu , Wei Chen , Rufan Zhang , Xuanyi Huang & Yi Cui; Nat Commun., 09/06/17.

Additional Authors: Guangmin Zhou , Feifei Shi , Denys Zhuo , Jie Zhao , Kai Liu , Yayuan Liu , Chenxi Zu , Wei Chen , Rufan Zhang , Xuanyi Huang & Yi Cui

Abstract:

Lithium polysulfide batteries possess several favorable attributes including low cost and high energy density for grid energy storage. However, the precipitation of insoluble and irreversible sulfide species on the surface of carbon and lithium (called “dead” sulfide species) leads to continuous capacity degradation in high mass loading cells, which represents a great challenge. To address this problem, herein we propose a strategy to reactivate dead sulfide species by reacting them with sulfur powder with stirring and heating (70 °C) to recover the cell capacity, and further demonstrate a flow battery system based on the reactivation approach. As a result, ultrahigh mass loading (0.125 g cm–3, 2 g sulfur in a single cell), high volumetric energy density (135 Wh L–1), good cycle life, and high single-cell capacity are achieved. The high volumetric energy density indicates its promising application for future grid energy storage.