"Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas"

Christopher R. Moon: Laila S. Mattos, Brian K. Foster, Gabriel Zeltzer & Hari C. Manoharan; Nature Nanotechnology , 04/15/09.

Additional Authors: Laila S. Mattos, Brian K. Foster, Gabriel Zeltzer & Hari C. Manoharan


The ability of the scanning tunnelling microscope to manipulate single atoms and molecules has allowed a single bit of information to be represented by a single atom or molecule. Although such information densities remain far beyond the reach of real-world devices, it has been assumed that the finite spacing between atoms in condensed-matter systems sets a rigid upper limit on information density. Here, we show that it is possible to exceed this limit with a holographic method that is based on electron wavefunctions rather than free-space optical waves. Scanning tunnelling microscopy and holograms comprised of individually manipulated molecules are used to create and detect electronically projected objects with features as small as ~0.3 nm, and to achieve information densities in excess of 20 bits nm−2. Our electronic quantum encoding scheme involves placing tens of bits of information into a single fermionic state.