"Hole Doping in Al-Containing Nickel Oxide Materials To Improve Electrochromic Performance"

Lin, Feng: Dennis Nordlund, Tsu-Chien Weng, Rob G. Moore, Dane T. Gillaspie, Anne C. Dillon, Ryan M. Richards, and Chaiwat Engtrakul; ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 12/18/12.

Additional Authors: Dennis Nordlund, Tsu-Chien Weng, Rob G. Moore, Dane T. Gillaspie, Anne C. Dillon, Ryan M. Richards, and Chaiwat Engtrakul

Abstract:

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Electrochromic materials exhibit switchable optical properties that can find applications in various fields, including smart windows, nonemissive displays, and semi- conductors. High-performing nickel oxide electrochromic materials have been realized by controlling the material composition and tuning the nanostructural morphology. Post- treatment techniques could represent efficient and cost- effective approaches for performance enhancement. Herein, we report on a post-processing ozone technique that improves the electrochromic performance of an aluminum-containing nickel oxide material in lithium-ion electrolytes. The resulting materials were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet−visible−near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). It was observed that ozone exposure increased the Ni oxidation state by introducing hole states in the NiO6 octahedral unit. In addition, ozone exposure gives rise to higher-performing aluminum-containing nickel oxide films, relative to nickel oxide containing both Al and Li, in terms of switching kinetics, bleached-state transparency, and optical modulation. The improved performance is attributed to the decreased crystallinity and increased nickel oxidation state in aluminum-containing nickel oxide electrochromic films. The present study provides an alternative route to improve electrochromic performance for nickel oxide materials.