"Full open-framework batteries for stationary energy storage"

Mauro Pasta: Colin D. Wessells, Nian Liu, Johanna Nelson, Matthew T. McDowell, Robert A. Huggins, Michael F. Toney & Yi Cui; Nature Communications, 01/06/14.

Additional Authors: Colin D. Wessells, Nian Liu, Johanna Nelson, Matthew T. McDowell, Robert A. Huggins, Michael F. Toney & Yi Cui

Abstract:

New types of energy storage are needed in conjunction with the deployment of renewable energy sources and their integration with the electrical grid. We have recently introduced a family of cathodes involving the reversible insertion of cations into materials with the Prussian Blue open-framework crystal structure. Here we report a newly developed manganese hexacyanomanganate open-framework anode that has the same crystal structure. By combining it with the previously reported copper hexacyanoferrate cathode we demonstrate a safe, fast, inexpensive, long-cycle life aqueous electrolyte battery, which involves the insertion of sodium ions. This high rate, high efficiency cell shows a 96.7% round trip energy efficiency when cycled at a 5C rate and an 84.2% energy efficiency at a 50C rate. There is no measurable capacity loss after 1,000 deep-discharge cycles. Bulk quantities of the electrode materials can be produced by a room temperature chemical synthesis from earth-abundant precursors.