"Design of Red Phosphorus Nanostructured Electrode for Fast-Charging Lithium-Ion Batteries with High Energy Density"

Yongming Sun: Li Wang, Yanbin Li, Yuzhang Li, Hye Ryoung Lee, Allen Pei, Xiangming He, and Yi Cui; Joule, 03/16/19.

Additional Authors: Li Wang, Yanbin Li, Yuzhang Li, Hye Ryoung Lee, Allen Pei, Xiangming He, and Yi Cui

Abstract:

We propose that red phosphorus (P) is an ideal anode material for fast-charging lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of the combined advantages of high capacity (6,075 mAh cm−3) and relatively low yet safe lithiation potential (∼0.7 V versus Li/Li+). A red P/C nanocomposite has been fabricated, featuring amorphous red P nanodomains embedded in the nanopores of micrometer-scale porous conductive carbon with interior nanoscale void spaces, a conductive P-free carbon superficial layer, and a high tap density of 1.0 g cm−3. At an industrial-level areal capacity (3 mAh cm−2 or higher), a P/C electrode shows considerably better fast-charging capability than commercial graphite and Li4Ti5O12 electrodes, as well as much higher volumetric capacity and specific capacity based on the whole electrode. Meanwhile, our P/C electrode shows excellent long-term cycling stability with Coulombic efficiency of 100.0% (±0.1%) and 90% capacity retention from the 5th to 500th cycles.