"Conformal Lithium Fluoride Protection Layer on Three-Dimensional Lithium by Nonhazardous Gaseous Reagent Freon"

Dingchang Lin: Yayuan Liu, Wei Chen, Guangmin Zhou, Kai Liu, Bruce Dunn, and Yi Cui; Nano Letters, 05/23/17.

Additional Authors: Yayuan Liu, Wei Chen, Guangmin Zhou, Kai Liu, Bruce Dunn, and Yi Cui


Research on lithium (Li) metal chemistry has been rapidly gaining momentum nowadays not only because of the appealing high theoretical capacity, but also its indispensable role in the next-generation Li–S and Li–air batteries. However, two root problems of Li metal, namely high reactivity and infinite relative volume change during cycling, bring about numerous other challenges that impede its practical applications. In the past, extensive studies have targeted these two root causes by either improving interfacial stability or constructing a stable host. However, efficient surface passivation on three-dimensional (3D) Li is still absent. Here, we develop a conformal LiF coating technique on Li surface with commercial Freon R134a as the reagent. In contrast to solid/liquid reagents, gaseous Freon exhibits not only nontoxicity and well-controlled reactivity, but also much better permeability that enables a uniform LiF coating even on 3D Li. By applying a LiF coating onto 3D layered Li-reduced graphene oxide (Li-rGO) electrodes, highly reduced side reactions and enhanced cycling stability without overpotential augment for over 200 cycles were proven in symmetric cells. Furthermore, Li–S cells with LiF protected Li-rGO exhibit significantly improved cyclability and Coulombic efficiency, while excellent rate capability (∼800 mAh g–1 at 2 C) can still be retained.